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Essential Oil Guide M-P

Aromatherapy Uses, Properties, and Benefits


Welcome to our essential oil guide for Red Mandarin through Pine Needle Essential Oil. To return to our full essential oil guide, click here. This guide includes useful information and uses about each essential oil, including botanical name, perfume note, source information, production method, blending tips, properties and more. Click on any of the links below to go directly to the essential oil product page and read more about any of our oils.  For the most up to date information on the oils that we carry, we recommend visiting our essential oil products pages

Note: Essential oils are potent substances and everyone reacts differently to them. All essential oils should be diluted before use and appropriate cautions should always be taken.  This guide is purely intended for educational use.

Mandarin, Red Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Citrus reticulata Blanco v. "Mandarin", C. Noblis (Family: Rutaceae)

Common Countries of Origin:

Italy

Description:

Mandarin Red essential oil is gentle and calming oil, and good for oily skin. Known in France as "the children's remedy" for its mildness

Mandarin Uses:

Use Mandarin essential oil in massage for the digestive system and, like Lavender, can be used in massage oil to help prevent stretch marks.

Warning:

Do not use Mandarin on the skin in direct sunlight.

Perfume Note:

Top

Source:

Fruit peel

Production Method:

Expression

Aromatherapy Class:

Calming

Aroma Type:

Citrus

Skin Type:

Aging/mature skin

Traditional Use:

Soothing agent, astringent, skin conditioner

Mandarin Blends Well With:

Basil, bergamot, chamomile, clary sage, olibanum, geranium, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, lime, neroli, orange, and rose

Main Constituents:

Linomene, geraniol, citral, citronellal



Manuka Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Leptospermum scoparium

Common Countries of Origin:

New Zealand

Description:

A bushy plant with small spiky leaves and pink flowers. Manuka is extracted by Steam distillation from the leaves and small stems of wild plants.

Manuka Benefits:

Manuka Oil is antibacterial and antifungal. Because of its spectrum, particularly against such bacteria as staphylococcus and streptococcus, and fungi such as T. mentagrophytes. Manuka is ideal for topical applications.

Uses of Manuka Essential Oil:

Antiseptic and for ulcers. Useful for muscular pain relief. It is used as a concentrate against athlete's foot and ringworm. Used to relax the skin. Used as a perfume. As an active ingredient particularly against gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. Excellent activity against P.acne. Is used in soaps, creams, shampoos, "tissue wipes" and antiseptic gels. Because of its high level of activity particularly against gram-positive organisms and its low toxicity, Manuka Oil is an excellent topical where Staphylococcus and/or Streptococcus are a major concern or where antisepsis and soothing together are important e.g., where burns are a factor.

Safety:

Manuka Oil is safe to use and shows almost no skin irritation.



Marjoram, Sweet Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Origanum majorana, Majorana hortensis,(Sweet), Thymus mastichina (Spanish) (Family: Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Common Countries of Origin:

Egypt

Description:

Marjoram oil is a calming, soothing oil that has a warming effect on both mind and body. It helps to relieve the miseries of the common cold, including congestion and muscle aches and pains, and is also comforting in times of stress. It has a warm, woody odor with spicy undertones.

Marjoram Uses:

Useful on tired muscles and for massaging on the abdomen during menstruation. Used to regulate the nervous system and treat insomnia. Add to After-Sports Rub. It is pleasant in a hot bath, especially blended with Lavender.

Warning:

Do not use during pregnancy. Care must be taken due to its sedative action - use sparingly!

Perfume Note:

Middle

Source:

Flowering top

Production Method:

Steam distillation

Aromatherapy Class:

Calming

Aroma Type:

Herbaceous

Traditional Use:

Antiseptic

Marjoram Blends Well With:

Cedarwood, chamomile, cypress, lavender, mandarin, orange, nutmeg, rosemary, ylang ylang, eucalyptus, and thyme

Main Constituents:

Carvacrol, thymol, camphor, borneol, origanol, pinene, sabinene, termineol.



Melissa (AKA Lemon Balm Essential Oil)

Botanical Name:

Melissa Officinalis (Family: Labiatae)

Common Countries of Origin:

Italy

Description:

A popular garden herb known also as 'Lemon Balm', this essential oil has a soothing but uplifting effect on mind and body. Melissa is a comforting oil during the cold season and when there is a high pollen count. It takes about 300 pounds of fresh lemon balm plants to yield 10ml of oil.

Warning:

Do not use Melissa on the skin in direct sunlight. Dilute to 1% and use only 3 drops in a bath as it may cause irritation of the skin.

Aroma:

Lemony aroma and sharp, floral-lemon flavor

Main Xonstituents:

Citral, citronellol, eugenol, geraniol, and llinalyl acetate



Myrrh Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Commiphora murrha, C. Molmol, Balsamodendrom myrra (Family: Burseraceae)

Common Countries of Origin:

Somalia

Description:

Myrrh has been used since ancient times as a sacred incense, a perfume, and as a therapeutic agent. It has a rich, smoky, balsamic odor and is soothing to the skin, centering, visualizing and meditative. The sap or resin from a tree rather than a true essential oil. One of the oldest-known perfume materials. Myrrh has a long history of use as incense, especially with frankincense.

Uses:

Add to cream for protecting against cracking and chapping in the cold. Used as a fixative in perfumery

Warning:

During pregnancy use Myrrh only in moderation.

Perfume Note:

Base

Source:

Resin

Production Method:

Steam distillation

Aromatherapy Class:

Toning, stimulating, soothing

Aroma Type:

Balsamic

Skin type:

Dry, aging/mature

Traditional Uses:

Insect repellent, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory agent, emollient

Blends Well With:

Clove, olibanum, galbanum, lavender, patchouli, sandalwood

Safety Information:

Use ½ recommended dilution or less

Main Constituents:

Herabolene, limone, dipentene, pinene, eugenol.



Neroli Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Citrus aurantium L. ssp amara L. (Family: rutaceae)

Common Countries of Origin:

Tunisia, Egypt, Morocco

Description:

Neroli is a beautiful floral oil  that soothes, relaxes, uplifts the spirit and helps maintain confidence. It has an exquisite aroma. Excellent skin care oil, perfect for aging, dry sensitive skin and on scars and stretch marks. Neroli essential oil also has sensual properties.

Uses:

Neroli essential oil is an aid to improve sluggish circulation, relieves tension, stress, and anxiety, useful for apprehension like stage fright. For a really luxurious blend, combine Neroli with Rose Absolute and Jasmine Absolute oils.

Perfume Note:

Middle

Source:

Flowers

Production Method:

Steam Distillation

Aromatherapy Class:

Stimulating, balancing, uplifting

Aroma Type:

Citrus

Skin type:

Sensitive, aging/mature

Traditional Use:

Antiseptic, emollient

Blends Well With:

Citrus oils, rose, jasmine, ylang ylang

Main Constituents:

Linalol, linalyl acetate, limonene, pinene, nerolidol, geraniol, nerol, indole, citral, jasmone.



Niaouli Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Melaleuca viridifloria

Description:

Niaouli is a pale yellow or greenish oil with a sweet, sharp, fresh odor. It is extracted by Steam distillation from an evergreen plant native to Australia, New Caledonia, and the French Pacific where it has been used locally for respiratory ailments, body aches and pains, and infections. It is closely related to Cajeput (Melaleuca cajeputi) but does not have the skin irritating potential of the latter. It is also related to Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia). It is non-toxic and non-sensitizing but it is often adulterated and so the real thing can be hard to find!

Main Constituents:

Its chemical Constituents include 50 - 60 % of cineol, eucalyptol, terpineol, pinene, limonene and various esters (Patricia Davis, Aromatherapy An A-Z).

Niaouli Essential Oil Uses:

Niaouli is a very versatile and useful essential oil. As already mentioned above, it is reported to strengthen the immune system. Shirley Price states that it activates defenses and augments leukocytes and antibodies in infected areas (Shirley Price & Len Price, Aromatherapy for Health Professionals). In addition, it is said to have a direct antiviral action against herpes simplex, some strains of influenza and viral hepatitis. It is generally considered to be a strengthening and fortifying oil and a physical and mental stimulant that clears and revives the mind and body.

Many people believe that when there is fatigue or exhaustion it is beneficial to stimulate the body as much as possible. This is not true - it is rarely, if ever good to subject the body to strong stimulants. Therefore, it is best to use Niaouli oil in small quantities (not more than 2 drops per application) and at night it can be combined with Lavender essential oil to prevent insomnia. The body will benefit from the fortifying action of Niaouli without the negative effects of over-stimulation.

Niaouli is a wonderful oil to use when you have been sick or stressed for a long time and your body is in a generally weakened condition with low stamina and poor immunity.
Niaouli is also a wonderful essential oil to use when you have body aches and pains. It has antispasmodic and analgesic effects that make it very useful for these applications. It is great to use in a diffuser when you have a cold because it will help fight the virus, open and stimulate the respiratory tract, mobilize and strengthen the immune system and fortify the body. Niaouli is an expectorant and very useful for the respiratory system (but, as with any essential oil, use only with guidance if you have asthma), as well as for the urinary tract (cystitis, urinary tract infection). To ease symptoms of cystitis, try a warm (not hot) bath with two drops of Niaouli added.

Niaouli is a powerful tissue stimulant and because of this, it can help to heal routine cuts and burns. Use 6 drops in a half pint of distilled water for washing wounds. Its strong antiseptic properties help in this respect and, because it is anti-inflammatory as well, it can help itching and inflamed skin. It can be applied neat to a pimple or insect bite but don't use more than 1drop this way. Mix 2 drops in a teaspoon of carrier oil (such as grapeseed oil) for applying to athletes foot. Niaouli has also been used to help protect the skin during radiation therapy for cancer but discuss this with your doctor before trying it.

Properties of Niaouli:

Analgesic; anticatarrhal; antirheumatic; antiseptic; antispasmodic; diaphoretic; expectorant; febrifuge; stimulant; balances and regulates body functions; soothes; tissue stimulant. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, Niaouli is cool, dry, and slightly yin. Its main uses are to detoxify, decrease inflammation, and fight infection.



Nutmeg Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Myristica aromata, M. fragrans, M. officinalis, Nux moschata. (Family: Myristicaceae)

Common Countries of Origin:

Indonesia

Warning:

Nutmeg essential oil is toxic if used in large quantities, and can be stupefying.

Source:

Fruits

Production Method:

Steam distillation

Aromatherapy Class:

Energizing, stimulating, warming

Uses of Nutmeg Essential Oil:

Traditional uses include: antiseptic, muscle relaxant, and aphrodisiac. Nutmeg essential oil is also wonderful for the digestion and calming to promote a restful sleep with dreams.

Nutmeg Blends Well With:

Lavandin, bay, orange, geranium, clary sage, rosemary, lime, petitgrain, mandarin, and coriander

Safety Information:

Use ½ recommended dilution or less

Main Constituents:

Borneol, camphene, cymol, dipentene, eugenol, geraniol, linalol, pinene, sapol, terpineol, myristicin, safrol.



Oak Moss Absolute

Botanical Name:

Evernia prunastri

Common Countries of Origin:

France

Method of Extraction:

Solvent Extracted

Color:

Light Brown

Note:

Base

Description:

Oakmoss absolute has a medium strength aroma that is rich, earthy, and woody.

Constituents:

Evernic acid, d-usnic acid, atranorine, and chloratronorine.



Orange, Sweet Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Citrus sinensis (Family: Rutaceae)

Common Countries of Origin:

Brazil

Description and Uses of Orange Essential Oil:

With a rich, fresh citrus scent, orange essential oil lifts the spirits yet is calming to the nerves. Try blending orange with spicy oils for cheering baths. Add to massage oil for the digestive system. Orange essential oil is also believed to brighten dull complexions. Encourages sleep.

Warning:

Do not use this oil on the skin or in baths 12 hours prior to sun or sunlamp exposure.

Perfume Note:

Top

Source:

Fruit peels

Production Method:

Expression

Aromatherapy Class:

Calming

Aroma Type:

Citrus

Skin Type:

Dry, aging/mature

Traditional Uses:

Astringent, soothing agent, skin conditioner

Orange Blends Well With:

Citrus oils, petitgrain, neroli, orange flower

Main Constituents:

Limonene, citral, citronellal, geraniol, linalool, perminol,bergapten, auraptenol, and acids.



Oregano Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Origanum vulgare L. (Family: Lamiaceae)

Common Countries of Origin:

Turkey

Oregano Uses and Description:

Oregano oil warms and assists with the improvement of circulation, digestion, mental clarity, and alertness. Oregano essential oil also relieves muscle aches and pains and assists in increasing physical endurance and energy. Oregano also may increase perspiration. It may assist in reducing cellulite.

Warning:

Can be irritating to sensitive skin so only use small amounts.



Palmarosa Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Cymbopogon martini Staph v motia, Andropogon martinii [(Family: Graminaceae (Poaceae)]

Common Countries of Origin:

India

Palmarosa Uses and Description:

Palmarosa has a light, lovely floral aroma which is uplifting. Palmarosa essential oil aids clarity of mind and also makes a wonderful skin care oil when mixed with Sweet Almond oil. It is said to stimulate cellular regeneration and it moisturizes making it particularly good for mature skin care and acne.

Perfume Note:

Middle

Source:

Aerial parts

Production Method:

Steam distillation

Aroma Type:

Floral

Skin Type:

Dry

Traditional Use:

Insect repellent, skin conditioner, soothing agent, emollient, muscle relaxant

Palmarosa Blends Well With:

Geranium, cananga, amyris, guaicawood

Main Constituents:

Mainly geraniol, with citronellal, citral, farnesol, limonene, and dipentene



Patchouli Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Pogostemon cablin, P. patchouli (Family: Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Common Countries of Origin:

Indonesia

Patchouli Uses and Description:

Patchouli essential oil has a persistent, musky, earthy, exotic aroma. Soothes and uplifts the spirit. It is soothing to the skin and is reported to be especially good for mature skin. Patchouli is useful for protecting dry, mature or blemished skin. Patchouli has sensual properties and its musky aroma lingers. Try using Patchouli on the scalp for dandruff. Patchouli is traditionally used in the East to scent linen and clothes and to repel fleas and lice. Can prevent sleep with its nerve stimulating properties.

Perfume Note:

Base

Source:

Leaves

Production Method:

Steam distillation

Aromatherapy Class:

Soothing, toning

Aroma Type:

Woodsy

Skin Type:

Oily and blemished

Traditional Use:

Anti-inflammatory agent, antiseptic, astringent, aphrodisiac, perfume

Patchouli Blends Well With:

Labdanum, vetiver, sandalwood, cedarwood, geranium, clove, lavender, rose, neroli, bergamot, myrrh, and clary sage

Main Constituents:

Patchoulil, pogostol, bulnesol, nor patchoulenol, bulnese, patchoulene.



Pepper, Black Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Piper nigrum L. (Family: Piperceae)

Common Countries of Origin:

India

Black Pepper Essential Oil Uses and Description:

Black Pepper essential oil's pungent aroma is stimulating and toning. This oil is ideal for massaging on abdomen and muscles. Use Black Pepper as pre-exercise rub to help maintain suppleness. Black Pepper has also been known to ease the effects of quitting smoking.


Black Pepper is one of the earliest used spices and has interesting effects when used in perfume blends.

Black Pepper Blends Well With:

Rose, rosemary, marjoram, olibanum, sandalwood, lavender, rosemary, marjoram and lavender, but should only be used in small amounts.

Warning:

Black Pepper can be a skin irritant, so must be used with care.

Perfume Note

Middle

Source:

Fruits

Production Method:

Steam distillation

Aroma Type:

Spicy

Traditional Uses:

Muscle relaxant and aphrodisiac

Main Constituents:

Thujene, pinene, camphene, sabinene, carene, myrcene, limonene, phellandrene, and beta- caryohyllene.



Peppermint Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Mentha piperita (Family: Lamiaceae [Labiatae])

Common Countries of Origin:

U.S.A. 

Description:

Peppermint is an energizing oil with a penetrating, minty aroma. It helps to relieve fatigue and muscle pain. Use it in the daytime, as its energizing effect may keep you awake at night.

Peppermint Essential Oil Uses:

Add to a massage blend for the digestive system. Excellent for refreshing tired head and feet. Sniff from the bottle or one drop on a handkerchief to revive during travel. When blended with Rosemary, Juniper, and a carrier oil, Peppermint essential oil makes an excellent morning bath.

Warning:

Some aromatherapists do not recommend the use of Peppermint oil when pregnant.

Perfume Note:

Top

Source:

Aerial parts

Production Method:

Steam distillation

Aromatherapy Class:

Energizing and stimulating

Aroma Type:

Minty

Skin Type:

Blemished

Traditional Use:

Insect repellent, emollient, antiseptic, muscle relaxant

Peppermint Blends Well With:

Bergamot, geranium, lavender, marjoram, rosemary, sandalwood

Safety Information:

Can cause skin irritation

Main Constituents:

Menthol, carvone, cineol, limonene, menthone, pinene, thymol.



Petitgrain Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Citrus aurantium v. amara , C. bigaradia (Family: Rutaceae)

Common Countries of Origin:

Spain

Petitgrain Uses and Description:

Petitgrain essential oil with its lovely fresh, flowery scent is revitalizing yet relaxing. It has a toning effect on the skin. This oil comes from the same trees as Neroli, though Petitgrain is distilled from the leaves rather than from the petals. Petitgrain has similar properties to Neroli; it has deodorant properties and helps to relieve anxiety and stress. Petitgrain also has an absolutely lovely aroma. It's great for a final rinse for healthy hair (two drops).

Petitgrain Blends Well With:

Citrus oils, lavender, clary sage, rosemary, olibanum, geranium, and bergamot as well as with orange and neroli.

Perfume Note:

Top

Source:

Leaves and stems

Production Method:

Steam distillation

Aromatherapy Class:

Calming

Aroma Type:

Citrus

Main Constituents:

Linalyl acetate geranyl acetate, linalool, nerol, termineol.



Pine Needle (Scotch Pine) Essential Oil

Botanical Name:

Pinus sylvestris L. (Family: Pinaceae)

Common Countries of Origin:

Hungary

Pine Needle Essential Oil Uses and Description:

Pine Needle essential oil stimulates, refreshes and cleanses. With a strong, fresh, and resinous aroma, this oil has a powerful antiseptic quality. Pine Needle essential oil has a deodorant effect and is often used in commercial preparations.

Warning:

Dilute and use with care as Pine oil may otherwise cause skin irritation.

Perfume Note:

Middle

Main Constituents:

Bornyl acetate, citral, cadinene, dipentene, phellandrene, pinene, sylvertrene


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These characteristics and properties have been historically reported for specific essential oils. This information is not intended as medical advice. Persons with medical conditions should see an appropriate healthcare provider for treatment and recommendations. Other usage and safety information may be available from other sources.